这九条长寿秘诀 你值得拥有

医牛资讯原创 2018-11-08 长寿 (82)

长寿不仅指活的岁数长,更需要活得健康。这里有九大科学的健康长寿秘诀,你值得拥有!

吃天然食物

多吃蔬菜、水果、全麦、坚果和低脂乳制品,少吃肥肉、黄油、糖、盐和包装食品。

许多研究发现,吃天然食物有助于活得更久,并且有效预防心脏病、癌症、帕金森症和阿尔兹海默症。研究人员认为,天然食物对人体有利的一个原因是通过改变与年龄相关疾病的染色体部分。

走路

坚持每天走路30分钟以上。如果30分钟对你来说太久,可以分成几部分来走。有规律的运动,尤其是令你气喘吁吁的运动,会带来巨大的健康益处。运动通过输送更多的血液和氧气来帮助脑细胞保持健康。事实上,研究表明有氧运动可以延缓或改善老年痴呆症的症状,不仅如此,还有助于:

•控制体重

•提升情绪

•保持骨骼和肌肉强壮

•睡得更好

•不容易得心脏病、2型糖尿病、高血压和高胆固醇

社交

孤独对健康有害。如果长期感到孤独,更有可能患痴呆症或抑郁症。研究称感到被孤立和孤独的老年人在洗澡、爬楼梯等日常活动上更加困难。他们比不那么孤独的人早去世。研究人员发现,孤独的人有更高水平的应激激素,导致炎症或肿胀,这些与关节炎和糖尿病有关。另一项研究发现,孤独的人对某些疱疹病毒有更多的抗体,这是一种免疫系统中有压力的表现。所以,多交朋友,多出去社交吧。

加点膳食纤维

把白面包换成全麦面包,在汤里加点豆类,或者在沙拉里加些苹果片。膳食纤维可以让饱腹时间更长,还能降低胆固醇水平,从而降低患心脏病、2型糖尿病和结肠癌的几率。

膳食纤维有助于预防便秘,这在老年人中更常见。50岁以后,男性每天应该摄入30克纤维,女性每天应该摄入21克。

戒烟

烟草会杀人。烟草几乎伤害身体的每个器官。香烟、咀嚼烟草和其他含有尼古丁的产品会导致心脏病、癌症、肺病和牙龈疾病,以及其他健康问题。戒烟永远都不嫌晚。身体在最后一根烟抽完20分钟后就开始痊愈。戒烟能让心脏病发作几率立马降低。一年内患心脏病的几率会下降一半,也会更加长寿。

试试太极

太极这种温和运动结合了缓慢的动作和深呼吸,就像在活动的时候一边冥想。

太极可以帮助老年人预防跌倒,跌倒是老年人受伤的主要原因。太极还有助于:

•缓解压力

•改善平衡

•加强肌肉

•增加灵活性

•减轻关节炎疼痛

选择营养品

营养物质最好从食物中获取,而非药片。你通常不需要针对老年人的特殊营养品。

50岁以后,身体确实比以前更需要维生素和矿物质,包括:

•钙——保持骨骼强壮

•维生素D——大部分可以从晒太阳获得

•维生素B12——老年人很难从食物中吸收,所以可能需要强化谷物或营养补充品

•维生素B6——使人的红细胞保持强壮,全身充满氧气

如果服用任何营养补充品,一定要告诉医生,以免与药物或治疗产生不良反应。

保持积极乐观

生活在很多方面会考验我们。亲人的离世,失业、健康问题的增加。但积极的心态有利于健康。当你选择乐观和感恩的时候,身心都会做出相应的反应。乐观的人比消极的人更长寿,心脏病和抑郁症的发病率也更低。积极的情绪甚至可能降低艾滋病毒感染者的病毒数。你只需要时间和多加练习来学会乐观:

•微笑,甚至假笑,能帮助降低压力

•重新定义,把思绪转移到好的事情上,而不是停留在坏的事情上

•写感恩日记

•为他人做好事

•常与那些能鼓舞你士气的人在一起

•接受你无法改变的事情

按生物钟入睡

失眠在老年人中很常见。每天按时起床和睡觉对预防失眠有帮助,从而获得充足的睡眠。

同时也可以试试:

•保持卧室黑暗,关掉电子产品

•晚上避免摄入咖啡因或酒精

•午休不要超过20分钟

•问问医生,服用的药物是否会让人难以入眠

循证来源

Mayo Clinic: “Aging: What to Expect,” “Mediterranean Diet: A Heart-Healthy Eating Plan,” “Exercise: 7 Benefits Of Regular Physical Activity,” “Tai Chi: A Gentle Way to Fight Stress,” “Positive Thinking: Stop Negative Self-Talk to Reduce Stress.”

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: “Health Tips For Older Adults,” “Walking: A Step in the Right Direction.”

American Academy of Family Physicians: “Healthy Habits at Age 60 And Beyond,” “Mediterranean Diet,” “Fiber: How to Increase the Amount in Your Diet,” “Sleep Changes in Older Adults.”

BMJ: “Mediterranean Diet and Telomere Length in Nurses’ Health Study: Population Based Cohort Study.”

Annals of Internal Medicine: “The Association Between Dietary Patterns at Midlife and Health in Aging: An Observational Study.”

Journal of American Geriatrics Society: “Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Reduces Incident Frailty Risk: Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis,” “Can Exercise Improve Cognitive Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease?” “Tai Chi for Risk of Falls. A Meta-Analysis.”

Arthritis Foundation: “Osteoarthritis Prevention: What You Can Do,” “Tai Chi for Arthritis.”

National Institute on Aging: “Osteoarthritis,” “Participating in Activities You Enjoy,” “Vitamins and Minerals,” “Dietary Supplements.”

Alzheimer’s Association: “Prevention and Risk of Alzheimer's and Dementia.” 

National Cancer Institute: “Harms of Cigarette Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting.”

Smokefree.gov: “Reasons to Quit,” “Benefits of Quitting.”

National Council on Aging: “Falls Prevention.”

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology: “Critical Evaluation of Causality Assessment of Herb-Drug Interactions in Patients.”

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: “Longevity Increased By Positive Self-Perceptions of Aging.”

National Sleep Foundation: “Healthy Sleep Tips.”

Neuropsychiatry: “Feelings of loneliness, but not social isolation, predict dementia onset: results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL).”

JAMA Internal Medicine: “Loneliness in Older Persons: A Predictor of Functional Decline and Death.”

Annual Reviews: “The Neuroendocrinology of Social Isolation.”

Ohio State University: “Loneliness, Like Chronic Stress, Taxes the Immune System.”

American Dental Association: “Oral Health Topics: Smoking and Tobacco Cessation.”

Harvard Health Publishing: “The health benefits of tai chi.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “The Power of Positive Thinking.”

University of San Francisco: “Randomized Controlled Trial of a Positive Affect Intervention to Reduce Stress in People Newly Diagnosed with HIV; Protocol and Design for the IRISS Study.”

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